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Farewell 3d and 6d, hello shortages and rationing

The end of an era in 1940

 

Woolworth's at Hammersmith shuttered for the blitz in 1940/41

The outbreak of war forced prices upwards. The increases were fuelled by shortages as suppliers had to make items to support the war effort.

This gave the Woolworth Board a dilemma. Either they had to abandon some of the key ranges, or to drop the sixpenny price limit which had been the defining feature of the Company for more than thirty years. They reluctantly decided to put prices up, at least for the duration of the war.

The store in Hammersmith, West London, was among the first to get a new look, with no mention of the prices. They were replaced by the "Diamond W" motif at either side of the name. The layout matched the approach that had been used in North America and Germany since 1932.

 

More than a million copies of this Good Things to Know booklet were issued through Woolworths' stores in 1940.An advertisement in the Woolworths Good Things to Know Magazine published in 1940 includes this advert explains why Woolworths had given up its upper price limit of sixpence an item. The move was said to be temporary, but turned out to be the end of an era.
Good Things to Know Magazine
was given free to customers in 1940.

It explained that the war had necessitated a rise in prices so that Woolworth's could offer a full range.

The first lines crept up by just a halfpenny (approx ¼p), as a test.

The sky did not fall, and as the year continued the increases became more pronounced.

 

Top - one of the first items over sixpence appears in the Above Bar, Southampton store in 1940. Bottom - one item in this 1944 display has risen to one shilling and sixpence (eighteen old pennies or the equivalent of 7½p)These Marvel Rubber soles were the first British Woolworths item officially advertised at a price over sixpence - 6½D a pair, allowing the Company to support the government's make do and mend policy

 

Marvel Rubber Soles were the first product to go over sixpence. They went up by a halfpenny.

The rise allowed some items dropped in the Thirties to be stocked again. Before long there were items at seven and eight old pence, and rationed items like socks and vests rose to one shilling (twelve old pence, equivalent of 5p).

In 1944, after an absence an absence of four years, new stocks of tin saucepans were one shilling and sixpence (7½p); this was three times the maximum before the War.

 

Colleagues prepare for a day's trading in the hastily repaired Woolworth's store in Devonport in South West England in 1941.

 

Introducing a wider range of prices made life hard for the staff. They did not have the benefit of 'adding up' cash registers, and were expected to add up purchases in their heads or using a simple ready reckoner table, showing all the combinations of three and six pence.

The old British currency operated in base twelve, with twelve pennies to a shilling and two hundred and forty to a pound, making it much harder than decimal money!

 

Clothing coupons were part of wartime rationing in Britain in the 1940s.  They made the job of Woolworths sales assistants a lot more complicated.

From 1940 onwards the complexity was compounded by rationing. Clothing and food purchases required coupons. Every citizen had an allowance of garments of different types and of each major food group. There was a different coupon for each, which had to be handed over when making a purchase. Officially they were non-transferrable.

Stores had to confirm that the coupons were valid before cutting them out of the book and placing them in the till with the money. They were not supposed to accept the small pieces of paper loose.

The extra handling time for the coupons caused queues in-store, which some customers found frustrating. Most tolerated the hardship as a small sacrifice compared with serving the country in uniform.

 

A clothing ration book from 1941.  Buying a man's overcoat needed 16 coupons !

Sometimes customers had coupons but the stores had no stock.  But on other occasions stores had the stock but no shopper seemed to have a coupon. Some items were rationed, others quite similar were not.  And officials from the Ministry always seems to have advice to offer, even when it was not really needed.

Here are some examples of the coupons needed buy clothes during the War

  • pair of socks or handkerchief of less than 1 sq ft ( approx 33cm2) - 1 coupon
  • vests, long pants and swimming trunks - 3 coupons for adults, 1 coupon for children
  • jacket (lined, woollen) - man's 13 coupons, woman's 12 coupons, child's 8 coupons

 

Soldiers, children and mums alike queue for Sweets at the Woolworths temporary store in Plymouth market on the day before sweet rationing took effect.

When news broke that sweets were to be rationed in 1942, there were long queues as people stocked up. The pictures, taken by Mr Bowen the Store Manager, show the rush at the Old Town Street, Plymouth store in Devon.

 

For a great website about the Woolworths Plymouth store during World War II (and much more), please take a look at Steve Johnson's excellent Cyber Heritage site at http://www.cyber-heritage.co.uk/history/fww.htm

 

A press advertisement for the limited supplies of Cadbury's Milk Chocolate asks customers to give their ration to children


Throughout the war, staff at many Woolworth's were proud that they had never turned a child away without sweets. An informal arrangement meant that older customers often left their coupons in-store "for the little ones".  Everyone turned a blind eye, in this great example of the blitz spirit that helped everyone through the dark days of war.

Manufacturers like Cadbury's, Nestlé and Melba all continued to advertise during the war. The copy asked people to "think of the children", as stocks were very limited.The Ministry of Food controlled where stocks were sent, directing supplies to the areas suffering the worst bombardment.

Rationing got more severe when the war ended. Sweets only became readily available again in 1954, meaning there is a generation of grandparents and great grandparents who really value their sweets and chocolates today.

 

Fast links to related content in the Woolworths Museum

1940s War, Austerity and Recovery Gallery

UK and USA a world apart   Blitz hits major cities   Spitfires for the RAF   Channel Islands Occupation   

Prices over sixpence   Home front defiance    A little piece of home   Woolworths' darkest hour  Reconstruction and austerity  

Wartime history pages with HTML5 media content averaging 1.5mb

Woolworths Staff War Memorial    New Cross Memorial   Finest hour picture gallery   

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